Breast Cancer

uPA and PAI-1 Breast Cancer Biomarkers and Clinical Utility: When Strong Evidence is Not Enough

Multiple studies have demonstrated that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have clinical utility as breast cancer biomarkers. uPA is an extracellular matrix-degrading protease involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. PAI-1 is thought to enhance angiogenesis and block apoptosis. Although PAI-1 inhibits the activity of uPA, very high levels of these two […]

By |December 20th, 2015|Breast Cancer|0 Comments

What is Triple Negative Breast Cancer and What does it Mean for Treatment?

Breast cancer is a disease that has many different subtypes, each with varying treatments and outcomes. The breast cancer subtypes are differentiated by the type of receptors expressed on the surface of the tumor cells. Knowing the receptor status of tumor cells is important as it helps to determine the most effective treatment.

Triple negative breast […]

By |December 9th, 2015|Breast Cancer|0 Comments

TIMP-1 and HER2 ECD as Biomarkers for Breast Cancer

Researchers are currently investigating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) as potential biomarkers in a number of different diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease and diabetes. TIMPs may be especially relevant as cancer biomarkers because they inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play a role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Many studies […]

By |December 2nd, 2015|Breast Cancer|0 Comments

Biomarker Basics

As this blog focuses on reviewing scientific papers describing biomarker discovery, validation and clinical use, we felt that it was time to pause and review some biomarker basics.

What is a biomarker? A biomarker can be objectively measured to assess a biologic process, a disease process, or a response to a treatment or lifestyle change.1 Almost […]

Redox Redux: Oxidative Stress and Biomarkers

Oxidative redox processes can cause human disease. During periods of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can structurally alter and impair the function of cellular proteins, lipids and DNA. While these highly reactive and short-lived species are hard to measure directly, researchers monitor them through the footprints they leave behind on certain proteins. Identifying […]

By |November 11th, 2015|Breast Cancer, Inflammation|0 Comments

Researchers Find CAIX Inhibition has Potential in Breast Cancer Subtypes

Solid tumors are characterized by their ability to thrive in conditions that favor a high intracellular pH and low extracellular pH.1 Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme that is induced in response to hypoxia (low oxygen) and plays a role in maintaining intra- and extracellular pH balance. Overexpressed in many types of tumors including […]

By |September 2nd, 2015|Breast Cancer|0 Comments

Could CAIX and CAXII Expression in Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Nodes Predict Metastasis?

Sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) immediately surround breast tumors. The invasion of cancer cells into the SLN is an early sign of metastasis. Being able to predict such an invasion would assist clinicians in making better treatment decisions for individual patients.

Eom et al1 investigated the relationship between SLN metastasis and the expression of carbonic anhydrase IX […]

By |August 12th, 2015|Breast Cancer|0 Comments

Tissue-Based Diagnostic Tests for HER-2 in Breast Cancer

There are currently three tissue-based diagnostics available to test for HER-2 positive breast cancer:

Immunohistochemistry
Inform Dual In Situ Hybridization
Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

Pathologists use HER-2 tissue tests to detect a protein called HER-2 (“human epidermal growth factor receptor 2”) that is found in certain types of cancer cells.   Alternatively, some tests are designed to detect the HER-2 […]

By |July 27th, 2015|Breast Cancer|0 Comments

The Importance of HER-2 Testing During Treatment for Breast Cancer

The more HER-2 genes a breast cancer cell has, the more HER-2 protein that cell will produce and the faster the cancer will grow. If a breast cancer patient is diagnosed with a positive HER-2 status, they typically will receive a targeted treatment such as Herceptin or Tykerb.1

However, even after treatment begins, HER-2 status remains […]

By |July 13th, 2015|Breast Cancer|0 Comments

Breast Cancer CSI: Suspects and Therapeutic Targets Identified

Molecular biology is like criminology. Experts study the crime scene to identify a suspect, and then investigate all known associates. They try to determine where suspects and associates interact and understand the nature of their relationship. Csiszar and colleagues1 investigated the players and interactions involved in breast cancer metastasis, specifically the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In […]

By |July 3rd, 2015|Breast Cancer|0 Comments